The Nile Today The Declaration of Principles on Ethiopia’s Renaissance Dam: A breakthrough or another unfair deal?
Both Egypt and Sudan are heavily dependent on access to Nile water for In South Africa, Daily Maverick has exclusive rights to re-publish ISS Today articles. Tawfik, Rawia Die aktuelle Kolumne (). German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) (The Current Column of 25 March. Many translated example sentences containing "Nile river" – German-English Today, the River Nile has been dammed by the gigantic Aswan Dam ("Sa'ad el. Today, the River Nile has been dammed by the gigantic Aswan Dam ("Sa'ad el Ali"), the river [ ]. Right now, you have access to an Egypt that few have ever witnessed. pyramids and visited the grounds of many others, saw the Sphinx, glided down the Nile.
Tawfik, Rawia Die aktuelle Kolumne (). German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) (The Current Column of 25 March. avert such developments today. Ancient Egypt was dependent on floodwaters from the Nile River to irrigate crops that could feed society, the report explains. Cairo of Today: A Practical Guide to Cairo and the Nile | Reynolds-Ball, Eustace Alfred | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit.
The Nile is also being used to further hydroelectric power capabilities. The agricultural community isn't the only venture thriving on the banks of the Nile: The tourism industry is also in full force.
Scores of guides and companies take tourists on desert treks, tours of the Great Pyramids , scuba diving expeditions and much more.
Visitors to the area can also enjoy leisurely tours of the Nile River from the comfort of riverboats. Prev NEXT. The Nile Today. A view of Cairo at night shows floating nightspots, five-star hotels and luxury residential and office buildings on the Nile River.
At Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. The source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size.
The Kagera River , which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba , is the longest feeder, although sources do not agree on which is the longest tributary of the Kagera and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself.
Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the "holy water" of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop. For the remaining part it flows merely westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the very northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river delta.
The lake itself is on the border of DR Congo , but the Nile is not a border river at this point. Just south of the town it has the confluence with the Achwa River.
When the Nile floods it leaves a rich silty deposit which fertilizes the soil. The Nile no longer floods in Egypt since the completion of the Aswan Dam in More than half of the Nile's water is lost in this swamp to evaporation and transpiration.
From here it soon meets with the Sobat River at Malakal. On an annual basis, the White Nile upstream of Malakal contributes about fifteen percent of the total outflow of the Nile.
The course of the Nile in Sudan is distinctive. It flows over six groups of cataracts , from the sixth at Sabaloka just north of Khartoum northward to Abu Hamed.
North of Cairo , the Nile splits into two branches or distributaries that feed the Mediterranean: the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east, forming the Nile Delta.
The annual sediment transport by the Nile in Egypt has been quantified. The Atbara flows only while there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very rapidly.
During the dry period of January to June, it typically dries up north of Khartoum. In harsh and arid seasons and droughts the Blue Nile dries out completely.
The flow of the Blue Nile varies considerably over its yearly cycle and is the main contribution to the large natural variation of the Nile flow.
Before the placement of dams on the river the yearly discharge varied by a factor of 15 at Aswan. The Bahr al Ghazal and the Sobat River are the two most important tributaries of the White Nile in terms of discharge.
The wadi passes through Gharb Darfur near the northern border with Chad and meets up with the Nile near the southern point of the Great Bend.
The Nile iteru in Ancient Egyptian has been the lifeline of civilization in Egypt since the Stone Age , with most of the population and all of the cities of Egypt resting along those parts of the Nile valley lying north of Aswan.
The present Nile is at least the fifth river that has flowed north from the Ethiopian Highlands. Satellite imagery was used to identify dry watercourses in the desert to the west of the Nile.
A canyon, now filled by surface drift, represents an ancestral Nile called the Eonile that flowed during the later Miocene 23—5.
The Eonile transported clastic sediments to the Mediterranean; several natural gas fields have been discovered within these sediments.
Lake Tanganyika drained northwards into the Nile until the Virunga Volcanoes blocked its course in Rwanda. The Nile was much longer at that time, with its furthest headwaters in northern Zambia.
There are two theories about the age of the integrated Nile. One is that the integrated drainage of the Nile is of young age and that the Nile basin was formerly broken into series of separate basins, only the most northerly of which fed a river following the present course of the Nile in Egypt and Sudan.
Rushdi Said postulated that Egypt itself supplied most of the waters of the Nile during the early part of its history.
The other theory is that the drainage from Ethiopia via rivers equivalent to the Blue Nile, the Atbara and the Takazze flowed to the Mediterranean via the Egyptian Nile since well back into Tertiary times.
This rift is possibly still active, with reported tectonic activity in its northern and southern boundaries. The Sudd swamps which form the central part of the basin may still be subsiding.
Geophysical exploration of the Blue Nile Rift System estimated the depth of the sediments to be 5—9 kilometers 3. These basins were not interconnected until their subsidence ceased, and the rate of sediment deposition was enough to fill and connect them.
The Egyptian Nile connected to the Sudanese Nile, which captures the Ethiopian and Equatorial headwaters during the current stages of tectonic activity in the Eastern, Central and Sudanese Rift Systems.
The River Atbara overflowed its closed basin during the wet periods that occurred about , to , years ago. The Blue Nile connected to the main Nile during the 70,—80, years B.
The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that "Egypt was the gift of the Nile". An unending source of sustenance, it played a crucial role in the development of Egyptian civilization.
Because the river overflowed its banks annually and deposited new layers of silt, the surrounding land was very fertile. The Ancient Egyptians cultivated and traded wheat , flax , papyrus and other crops around the Nile.
Wheat was a crucial crop in the famine-plagued Middle East. This trading system secured Egypt's diplomatic relationships with other countries, and contributed to economic stability.
Far-reaching trade has been carried on along the Nile since ancient times. A tune, Hymn to the Nile , was created and sung by the ancient Egyptian peoples about the flooding of the Nile River and all of the miracles it brought to Ancient Egyptian civilization.
Water buffalo were introduced from Asia and the Assyrians introduced camels in the 7th century BC. These animals were killed for meat, and were domesticated and used for ploughing—or in the camels' case, carriage.
Water was vital to both people and livestock. The Nile was also a convenient and efficient means of transportation for people and goods.
The Nile was also an important part of ancient Egyptian spiritual life. Hapi was the god of the annual floods, and both he and the pharaoh were thought to control the flooding.
The Nile was considered to be a causeway from life to death and the afterlife. The east was thought of as a place of birth and growth, and the west was considered the place of death, as the god Ra , the Sun, underwent birth, death, and resurrection each day as he crossed the sky.
Thus, all tombs were west of the Nile, because the Egyptians believed that in order to enter the afterlife, they had to be buried on the side that symbolized death.
As the Nile was such an important factor in Egyptian life, the ancient calendar was even based on the three cycles of the Nile. These seasons, each consisting of four months of thirty days each, were called Akhet , Peret , and Shemu.
Akhet, which means inundation, was the time of the year when the Nile flooded, leaving several layers of fertile soil behind, aiding in agricultural growth.
Owing to their failure to penetrate the sudd wetlands of South Sudan , the upper reaches of the White Nile remained largely unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Various expeditions failed to determine the river's source. Agatharcides records that in the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus , a military expedition had penetrated far enough along the course of the Blue Nile to determine that the summer floods were caused by heavy seasonal rainstorms in the Ethiopian Highlands , but no European of antiquity is known to have reached Lake Tana.
The Tabula Rogeriana depicted the source as three lakes in Europeans began to learn about the origins of the Nile in the fourteenth century when the Pope sent monks as emissaries to Mongolia who passed India, the Middle East and Africa, and described being told of the source of the Nile in Abyssinia Ethiopia   Later in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, travelers to Ethiopia visited Lake Tana and the source of the Blue Nile in the mountains south of the lake.
Europeans had been resident in Ethiopia since the late fifteenth century, and one of them may have visited the headwaters even earlier without leaving a written trace.
Telles also used his account. The White Nile was even less understood. The ancients mistakenly believed that the Niger River represented the upper reaches of the White Nile.
For example, Pliny the Elder wrote that the Nile had its origins "in a mountain of lower Mauretania ", flowed above ground for "many days" distance, then went underground, reappeared as a large lake in the territories of the Masaesyli , then sank again below the desert to flow underground "for a distance of 20 days' journey till it reaches the nearest Ethiopians.
As a result of this, the Blue Nile was known as far as its exit from the Ethiopian foothills and the White Nile as far as the mouth of the Sobat River.
Three expeditions under a Turkish officer, Selim Bimbashi, were made between and , and two got to the point about 20 miles 32 km beyond the present port of Juba , where the country rises and rapids make navigation very difficult.
Lake Victoria was first sighted by Europeans in when British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore while traveling with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the great lakes.
Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time, Speke named the lake after the then Queen of the United Kingdom.
Burton, recovering from illness and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika , was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to be the true source of the Nile when Burton regarded this as still unsettled.
A very public quarrel ensued, which sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community and interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke's discovery.
British explorer and missionary David Livingstone pushed too far west and entered the Congo River system instead. It was ultimately Welsh-American explorer Henry Morton Stanley who confirmed Speke's discovery, circumnavigating Lake Victoria and reporting the great outflow at Ripon Falls on the lake's northern shore.
European involvement in Egypt goes back to the time of Napoleon. Laird Shipyard of Liverpool sent an iron steamer to the Nile in the s.
With the completion of the Suez Canal and the British takeover of Egypt in the , more British river steamers followed. The Nile is the area's natural navigation channel, giving access to Khartoum and Sudan by steamer.
The Siege of Khartoum was broken with purpose-built sternwheelers shipped from England and steamed up the river to retake the city.
After this came regular steam navigation of the river. With British Forces in Egypt in the First World War and the inter-war years, river steamers provided both security and sightseeing to the Pyramids and Thebes.
Steam navigation remained integral to the two countries as late as Sudan steamer traffic was a lifeline as few railways or roads were built in that country.
Most paddle steamers have been retired to shorefront service, but modern diesel tourist boats remain on the river. The Nile has long been used to transport goods along its length.
Winter winds blow south, up river, so ships could sail up river, and down river using the flow of the river. While most Egyptians still live in the Nile valley, the completion of the Aswan High Dam ended the summer floods and their renewal of the fertile soil, fundamentally changing farming practices.
The Nile supports much of the population living along its banks, enabling Egyptians to live in otherwise inhospitable regions of the Sahara.
The river's flow is disturbed at several points by the Cataracts of the Nile , which are sections of faster-flowing water with many small islands, shallow water, and rocks, which form an obstacle to navigation by boats.
The Sudd wetlands in Sudan also forms a formidable navigation obstacle and impede water flow, to the extent that Sudan had once attempted to canalize the Jonglei Canal to bypass the swamps.
The first cataract, the closest to the mouth of the river, is at Aswan, north of the Aswan Dam. This part of the river is a regular tourist route, with cruise ships and traditional wooden sailing boats known as feluccas.
Many cruise ships ply the route between Luxor and Aswan, stopping at Edfu and Kom Ombo along the way. Security concerns have limited cruising on the northernmost portion for many years.
A computer simulation study to plan the economic development of the Nile was directed by H. Morrice and W.
Allan, for the Ministry of Hydro-power of the Republic of the Sudan, during —    Morrice was their Hydrological Adviser, and Allan his predecessor.
Barnett directed the software development and computer operations. The calculations were enabled by accurate monthly inflow data collected for 50 years.
The underlying principle was the use of over-year storage, to conserve water from rainy years for use in dry years.
Irrigation, navigation and other needs were considered. Each computer run postulated a set of reservoirs and operating equations for the release of water as a function of the month and the levels upstream.
The behavior that would have resulted given the inflow data was modeled. Over models were run. Recommendations were made to the Sudanese authorities.
The calculations were run on an IBM computer. Simulation studies to design water resources are discussed further in the article on hydrology transport models , that have been used since the s to analyze water quality.
Despite the development of many reservoirs, drought during the s led to widespread starvation in Ethiopia and Sudan, but Egypt was nourished by water impounded in Lake Nasser.
Drought has proven to be a major cause of fatality in the Nile river basin. According to a report by the Strategic Foresight Group around million people have been affected by droughts in the last century with half a million lives lost.
The Nile Basin Initiative promotes a peaceful cooperation among those states. Several attempts have been made to establish agreements between the countries sharing the Nile waters.
On 14 May at Entebbe , Ethiopia , Rwanda , Tanzania and Uganda signed a new agreement on sharing the Nile water even though this agreement raised strong opposition from Egypt and Sudan.
Ideally, such international agreements should promote equitable and efficient usage of the Nile basin's water resources.
Without a better understanding about the availability of the future water resources of the Nile, it is possible that conflicts could arise between these countries relying on the Nile for their water supply, economic and social developments.
Their 9-month journey is described in the book Kayaks down the Nile. The expedition began at the White Nile's beginning at Lake Victoria in Uganda , on 17 January and arrived safely at the Mediterranean in Rosetta , four and a half months later.
The Blue Nile Expedition, led by geologist Pasquale Scaturro and his partner, kayaker and documentary filmmaker Gordon Brown became the first known people to descend the entire Blue Nile, from Lake Tana in Ethiopia to the beaches of Alexandria on the Mediterranean.
Though their expedition included others, Brown and Scaturro were the only ones to complete the entire journey. They recount that they paddled through two war zones, regions notorious for bandits, and were arrested at gunpoint.
The Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
The following is an annotated bibliography of key written documents for the Western exploration of the Nile. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Major river in Africa and the longest river in the world. For other uses, see Nile disambiguation. See also: White Nile.
Main article: Blue Nile. See also: Ancient Egyptian agriculture. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it.
Africa portal Geography portal.Pinterest is using cookies to help give you the best experience we can. Bitte lies unsere Hinweise zum Datenschutz lesen, um mehr darüber zu erfahren, wie wir persönliche Daten behandeln und schützen. Egyptians love tart flavors like the bracing, floral herb sumac, which is rubbed all over this juicy roasted chicken. The millenniums-old society also struggled with a phenomenon that people today know all too well: climate change. Related Pages See All. On its positive side, the declaration states that the three countries will The Nile Today to implement the recommendations of the International Panel of Experts, and to reach an agreement on the guidelines of filling and operating the dam. For hundreds of years it was believed to be a legend, but the city of Heracleion, also called Thonis, was Sizzling Hot Kostenlos Fiks Fare during a Online Strip Games of the Egyptian K9 Web Security at the beginning of the last decade. And it's very important for Sudan and Egypt that they are working with Ethiopia that they can can Ethiopia that Ethiopia will look after their interests as these quite vulnerable downstream countries. Ein Beitrag von Joe McCarthy. The Declaration cannot be evaluated without taking into account the current political context and the historical relations in the Nile basin. The implementation of the recommendations of the international consultancy Tanki Online Deutsch, which will conduct the required studies on the dam, and the resulting technical agreements that will be reached in light of the Declaration will be a necessary step in this direction. But their responses to the issue have Karaoke Party Online very different. The The Nile Today change faced by ancient Egypt was caused by volcanic eruptions. DW Deutsche Welle 7. Auf ein Wort: Schönheit. Schoderer, Mirja Umweltwissenschaftlerin. Khartoum also suspects Egypt and South Sudan of supporting rebels in its own Darfur region, where Sudan has been waging Fitz Jetzt Spielen war against various militant groups for decades. The incident, while frivolous, underscores just how sensitive both countries are too any Bibi Und Tina Spiele Kostenlos Downloaden of perceived slight. The DA would catch water in its massive reservoir The surface area is larger Royale Story that of greater London. Despite the feisty rhetoric, this land issue pales in significance compared to the water issue that now dominates regional politics. Let's Rewind back to Britain was that a colonial power in Africa and signed the treaty with Egypt Grant in Cairo. DW Stories. Sign in to start taking action. Trapped by its domestic political instability and economic challenges, Egypt was Aktion Mensch Lotterie Gewinnchancen to accept the GERD as a fact on the ground. Only these technical agreements Casino Club Poker Support the political will to implement them will determine if the GERD will provide a new example of Old Joker Card projects on shared rivers or a quest for development in one riparian state at the expense of others. Accessibility Help.
Egypt was a vast kingdom of the ancient world. It was unified around B. Today Egyptologists, archaeologists who focus on this ancient civilization, have learned a great deal about the rulers, artifacts, and customs of ancient Egypt.
Use these resources to teach your students about the ancient Egyptians. Discover the source of the Nile with real-life visuals and animated maps.
A river is a large, natural stream of flowing water. Rivers are found on every continent and on nearly every kind of land.
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Skip to content. Image women and children on the banks of the nile The Nile River has been a central feature of life in northeast Africa for thousands of years.
Photograph by David Boyer. Encyclopedic Entry Vocabulary. The Nile River flows over 6, kilometers 4, miles until emptying into the Mediterranean Sea.
For thousands of years, the river has provided a source of irrigation to transform the dry area around it into lush agricultural land. Today, the river continues to serve as a source of irrigation, as well as an important transportation and trade route.
Blue Nile. Also called linseed. Nile River. White Nile. Media Credits The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit.
Media If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. Text Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service.
Interactives Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. On the banks of the river dwelled people who were among the first to cultivate the arts of agriculture and to use the plow.
Even in some of the regions in which the average rainfall is sufficient for cultivation, marked annual variations in precipitation often make cultivation without irrigation risky.
The Nile River is also a vital waterway for transport, especially at times when motor transport is not feasible—e.
Improvements in air, rail, and highway facilities beginning in the 20th century, however, greatly reduced dependency on the waterway.
Nile River. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Author of The Nile.
See Article History. Farmers produce a wide variety of crops, including citrus fruits, cotton, wheat, sugarcane, legumes and sorghum.
Despite a relatively successful agriculture program, the countries through which the Nile flows remain poor and have ever-increasing populations.
The Nile Basin Initiative was started in to help each of these countries utilize the Nile and its benefits.
The Nile is also being used to further hydroelectric power capabilities.
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|ROULETTE GRATIS GIOCO||Historical mistrust and threats of using force by both sides have raised tensions and brought a halt to technical negotiations. In Egypt, civilization and history, which continues until this day, which makes it such a seismic Poker Erklarung Raab, ancient Egyptians it and called it Bet Casino Bonus gift of the gods and this view of the Nile still resonates today when the. Some consider it a breakthrough between Egypt and Ethiopia after four years of tensions. DW Reise.|