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Inmates came from almost all countries of Europe, many of them had been arrested for political reasons. After May , Jews were also brought to Mittelbau.
The prisoners were subject to extreme cruelty. As a result, they often suffered injuries, including permanent disability and disfigurement, and death.
Severe beatings were routine, as was deliberate starvation, torture and summary executions. In total, around 60, prisoners passed through the Mittelbau camps between August and March The precise number of people killed is impossible to determine.
The SS files counted around 12, dead. In addition, an unknown number of unregistered prisoners died or were murdered in the camps.
Around 5, sick and dying were sent in early and in March to Lublin and Bergen-Belsen. Of those killed, around were hanged including for sabotage.
On 1 January , the Mittelwerk delivered its first three rockets, all of which suffered from serious production defects.
As a result, new prisoners were brought in from other concentration camps. From March , the others were moved to newly created subcamps in the area around Nordhausen where they continued to be used for digging new tunnels or working at construction sites above ground.
By late January, 56 rockets had been produced. By May, monthly output was units. There were still defects, resulting in launch-pad and mid-air explosions.
Output was still far below the goal of 1, units per month. On 8 September , the first V-2 built at Mittelbau was successfully launched at London.
That month, production hit units, a pace that was kept up until February On 31 December , construction of the above-ground camp, less than a kilometre from the tunnel B entrance was sufficiently completed for the workers to move in.
More subcamps were added once Mittelbau was officially independent. By spring , the number of inmates totaled over 40, in around 40 camps.
Originally, these still were part of the Buchenwald system. With the creation of the Jägerstab Fighter Staff , led by Speer, as an institution to oversee a boost to fighter plane production and the move of military production underground, facilities for the production of fighter planes for the Junkers company were to be created around Nordhausen - along with the necessary infrastructure.
In addition, after the creation of the Geilenbergstab named after Edmund Geilenberg , over the summer of more underground construction was requested for the German petroleum industry.
Demand for workers for these projects was satisfied with concentration camp prisoners, but also with foreign forced labourers, POWs and drafted Germans.
In effect, the new camp became officially operational on 1 November with 32, prisoners. By the time Dora became operational in November ,  the decline of Mittelbau-Dora was already beginning.
With the subcamps overcrowded and the weather turning colder, conditions in all camps deteriorated and the death rate rose significantly.
After peaking in March at , this had declined to to per month by the summer. From November it picked up and in December the official tally was , of which died at Lager Ellrich.
Many of them were transported to the Mittelbau. Through March , up to 16, prisoners arrived, including women and children.
Although many died in transit, this raised the number of Jews at Mittelbau. Those who survived were often extremely weak or sick. Once again, the death rate rose: Between January and early April , around 6, inmates died, around 3, of them at the Boelcke -Kaserne a former Luftwaffe barracks at Nordhausen, which had been used by the SS after January as the main Sterbelager camp for the dying for the Mittelbau system.
Along with the inmates from Auschwitz arrived several hundred SS guards who joined the staff at Mittelbau, including Richard Baer , who succeeded Otto Förschner as overall Mittelbau commandant on 1 February Baer replaced most senior personnel with people from Auschwitz.
Franz Hössler became commandant of the Häftlinglager Dora. Eduard Wirths became the new Standortarzt.
Out of 40, inhabitants, roughly 8, people died, 20, lost their homes. Among the dead were also an estimated 1,, Mittelbau prisoners, who were confined at the Boelcke-Kaserne at the time.
In great haste and with considerable brutality, the inmates were forced to board box cars. Several trains, each with thousands of prisoners, left the area through 6 April for Bergen-Belsen, Sachsenhausen and Ravensbrück.
Others were forced to walk through the Harz hills towards the northeast. Those unable to keep up with these death marches were summarily shot by the guards.
The worst atrocity occurred at Gardelegen, known as the Gardelegen massacre. More than 1, prisoners from Mittelbau and Neuengamme subcamps were murdered in a barn that was set on fire.
Those who were not burned alive were shot by SS, Wehrmacht and men of the Volkssturm. Overall, although no reliable statistics on the number of deaths on these transports exist, estimates put the number of prisoners killed at up to 8, As most of the camps of the Mittelbau system were completely evacuated, there were not many prisoners left to be liberated by the Allies.
Only some small subcamps, mostly containing Italian POWs, were not evacuated. There were also around 1, dead prisoners at the barracks.
War correspondents took pictures and made films of the dead and dying prisoners at Dora. Like the documentation of Nazi atrocities at Bergen-Belsen, these were published around the globe and became some of the best-known testimonies of Nazi crimes.
Most of those inmates who survived the transports were freed in mid-April at Bergen-Belsen or at other camps. Some, however, remained prisoners until early May and were freed in Mecklenburg or Austria.
In total, even conservative estimates put the number of people who did not survive being sent to Mittelbau-Dora at over 20, Thus, around one in three of those confined here did not survive.
Aftermath of the British bombing raid of 3 and 4 April that destroyed the Boelcke-Kaserne. Transports from Mittelbau arrived at Bergen-Belsen between 8 and 11 April Several thousand men were housed in the so-called Kasernenlager around 2 kilometres north of the main camp, which was already overflowing with prisoners.
Of the approximately 15, prisoners from Mittelbau, about half were from the Soviet Union and Poland. Although not in good health, these men were much healthier than most of the prisoners in the Belsen main camp.
Sing and count forwards and backwards with Dora and Boots as they go up and down Musical Mountain! Help Dora and Boots take their snowman friend back to his home where he belongs!
Dora found a baby bird, but the bird is cold and wet! Maybe Dora has something in her backpack that can help! Create your own festive stickerbook with your favorite Nick Jr.
Join Dora, Boots, Backpack, Map, and Swiper for interactive preschool adventures in your backyard and around the world.
Grownups Privacy. PAW Patrol. In this preschool game, kids can practice their counting skills by following the numbers to connect the dots and complete each puzzle Age: X he Piggy Gate When Boots goes into the pigpen, Dora must close the gate so the pigs don't run away!
The chairman of the military court announced the verdicts on Christmas Eve, and delivered the corresponding sentences on December Seven life sentences, seven fixed-term prison sentences, and one death penalty were handed down.
Four defendants were acquitted, including Rickhey. A review of the verdicts was completed on 23 April by the Deputy Judge Advocate for War Crimes, which were all confirmed with one exception: regarding the offender Oskar Helbig, the sentence of twenty years in prison was reduced to ten.
The military Governor of the American occupation zone , Lucius D. Clay , confirmed all the judgments according to the recommendations in the review process and pronounced them final on June 25, The 19 verdicts were in particular: .
During the Dora Trial, additional proceedings against five lower-level defendants occurred between late October and mid-December These were short-term trials agreed between the prosecution and the defense, each lasting a few days.
After the verdict all the convicts were transferred to Landsberg Prison to serve out their sentence. Möser, the only one of the convicts sentenced to death, was executed by hanging on November 26, These last four inmates were released from Landsberg at the conclusion of the U.
War Crimes program. As measured by the 2,strong staff of the Mittelbau-Dora complex, only a small number were actually charged: Only 19 defendants were indicted in the Dora Trial and 5 in the collateral proceedings.
Also, in relation to other Dachau concentration camp procedures, the number of defendants was rather low.
The tendency for leniency in the Dora Trial was clear: In the main Dachau Trials , 36 of the 40 defendants were sentenced to death; in Dora, only one.
Moreover, this last of the Dachau Trials occurred over three and a half years after the liberation of Mittelbau. By this time, the judges could only hearken back to indirect impressions of camp horrors, unlike the earlier trials.
Moreover, witnesses who were needed to identify the accused were often nowhere to be found. In addition, by contrast to the Buchenwald Trial completed in the Soviet Zone in August , the Dora Trial received little public attention.
Differences in newspaper coverage were obvious: In the Frankfurter Rundschau , the headlines of 8 August read: "Sensational Trial at Dachau.
In the southern Harz region where Nordhausen was located, now in the Soviet Zone, this American trial was barely mentioned.
The legal institution of common design was applied, but not as consistently as in the main Dachau concentration camp trials. For example, defendant Kurt Heinrich, former adjutant to the camp commander, was acquitted.
In the Dachau Trials, Rudolf Heinrich Suttrop was sentenced to death for performing the same function. This trend is also evident at the Secondary Dora proceedings, where the indictments had been for a single, provable offense and not common design.
In addition, neither Wernher von Braun nor Arthur Rudolph nor other important representatives of the Mittelwerk GmbH were indicted or required to appear in court to testify.
They were, as Rickhey before them, sent away in Operation Paperclip for rocket research in the United States. During this time the American authorities began to pursue a policy opposing the further prosecution of war crimes in order to utilize the expertise of the engineers in the Cold War.
Denazification also lost importance as the Allies wanted to win over West Germany as an ally. In the German population, after the first shock of the concentration camp crimes, solidarity emerged with the welfare of the war criminals in Landsberg Prison.
This was also reflected in the gradual mitigation of sentences and the premature commuting of sentences. Long after the Dachau Dora Trials were complete, violent crimes still extant in the body of facts resulted in new Mittelbau-Dora trials both in West Germany and East Germany.
Furthermore, the murder of 58 suspected resistance fighters and deadly abuses in "enhanced interrogation" of prisoners were subject to proceedings.
On 8 May , Busta was sentenced to eight and a half years and Sander sentenced to seven and a half years in prison.
In the spring of , while emptying a container of waste paper, the owner of a recycling company in Kerkrade , Netherlands found an extensive set of documents from the Dora Trials as well as original photographs of the initial liberation of Mittelbau-Dora and its auxiliary camps.
It was not possible to identify how these documents came to be in the waste container. However, it is clear they were from the estate of William Aalmans, the Dutch citizen who served with the U.
Army in the liberation of Mittelbau-Dora and then worked for the prosecution in the Dora Trial. The documents, many of which were previously unknown, are an extremely valuable addition to the collection.
Many are now on display at the new permanent exhibition at the former camp site, opened in April From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Mittelbau-Dora.
The Dora Defendants in June, Hans Karl Möser. Georg Johannes Rickhey. Wilhelm Simon. Alex Piorkowski et al.
The penalty had also been reduced to five years after a review procedure. Upon the Dora Trial verdict, it was determined that both sentences should be served concurrently.
Die Dachauer Kriegsverbrecherprozesse Göttingen, p. Case No. The Dachau war crimes trials ", Frankfurt am Main , p.
München , S. Archived from the original on Retrieved Zwangsarbeit im Raketentunnel in German.
Der Essener Dora-Prozess — im deutsch-deutschen Systemkonflikt. Nordhausen , p. International criminal law. Law portal. Crimes against international law.
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